Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Mike Rinehart W.E.B. Du Bois Review Civil Rights Activist W.E.B. Du Bois tackles a difficult era in American History following the Civil War which is known as Reconstruction. The era itself is well known for its lack of objectivity in the ways it has been viewed by white historians prior to the publication of this book in 1935. Du Bois book, Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860Ã¢â¬â1880 attempts to revise the writings of pervious historians, who were devoted to their own sectional causes, partisan viewpoints and racist beliefs on Reconstruction. Unlike most Reconstruction histories up to that time, Du Bois breaks his book down into fifteen chapters. The first three focus on the social history of African American workers, white workers and the planters (landowners). With a chapter devoted to each one the reader gets an in-depth history of each, the difficult interactions between each and these introductory chapters serve as a springboard to the rest of Du Bois book whose subsequent chapters focus on more social topics like education, the development of proletariats and a final chapter devoted to Du Bois eloquent, revisionist response to previous historians regarding this era. It is likely that Du Bois, an African-American possessed an ulterior motive for all of the rebuttals to previous Reconstructions histories and who can blame him? The Ã¢â¬Å"Dunning SchoolÃ¢â¬ onShow MoreRelatedB. Dubois And Booker T. Washington795 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesviolence or leaving the violence untouched? W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington were two African-American rights activists during the late 1800s and early 1900s. W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington had the same idea for the end result of equality for colored people. However, they had very different approaches to reach their desired results. Booker T. Washington believed it was the right idea to approach his issues in a passive manner. However, W.E.B. DuBois believes that a more aggressive planRead MoreBlack History954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction to Sociology Instructor: Jeanette Maxey November 11, 2012 Theorists of Choice W.E.B Du Bois Sociology is the study of group behavior through the use of scientific investigation and research (Vissing, 2011). This class has shown so many different views on sociology. It explains how different people see society and how they live and interact with them. My theorist of choice is W.E.B Du Bois, because he laid down the foundation for the study of black sociology and the work of scholarsRead MoreAnalysis Of Booker T. Washington872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBooker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois were two of many very influential Black leaders in African American history. These men, though born over a decade a part, shared a common aspiration of obtaining equal rights and sought education for change on the behalf of Blacks. However, the philosophy in which these goals would be achieved differed greatly among the two. Booker T. Washington was born April 5, 1856 in Franklin County, Virginia. His mother was a slave which meant that he too wouldRead MoreRacial Equality : Economics Vs Education876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRacial Equality: Economics vs Education Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois were two of many very influential Black leaders in African American history. These men, though born over a decade apart, shared a common aspiration of obtaining equal rights and sought education for change on the behalf of Blacks. However, the philosophy in which these goals would be achieved differed greatly among the two. Booker T. Washington was born April 5, 1856 in Franklin County, Virginia. His mother wasRead MoreWas Marcus Garvey The Most Significant African American Civil Rights Leader?1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTo what extent was Marcus Garvey the most significant African American civil rights leader in the period 1865-1945? The period between 1865 and 1945 saw some of the most dramatic social, political and economic changes in America. The key issue of black civil rights throughout this period was advocated and led by a range of significant, emotive and inspiring leaders. Marcus Garvey was a formidable public speaker and is often named as the most popular black nationalist leader of the early twentiethRead MoreBooker T. Washington Essay examples933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesleaders, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. These two men are both working to achieve a common goal, but the roads on which theyÃ¢â¬â¢re each traveling to get there differ significantly. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois offer different strategies for dealing with the problems of poverty and discrimination facing Black Americans. Booker T. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s gradualism stance gives him wide spread appeal among both blacks and whites, although W.E.B. Du Bois has the upper hand when it comes toRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Souls Of Black Folk 1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesarea of politics, as southern states amended their constitutions to deny Black American citizens their voting rights that had been ratified by the Fifteenth Amendment. The beliefs of racial uplift, was an idea that placed responsibility on educated Black people for the well-being of the majority of their race. This was a reaction to the assault on African American civil and political rights, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"the Negro problem (Washington 8).Ã¢â¬ During this era, there were opportunities for Black peopleRead MoreB. Du Bois928 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe greatest leaders in African American history was born. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, better known as W.E.B. Du Bois is one of the greatest scholar, writer, editor, and civil rights activist. Many civil rights leaders and other important black leaders and role models see W.E.B Du Bois as the father of the Civil Rights Movem ent. W.E.B Du Bois paved the way for many African Americans in the country. Du Bois played a very influential role in many movements that would help the African AmericanRead MoreWilliam Edward Burghardt s The Souls Of Black Folk1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWilliam Edward Burghardt, also known as W. E. B. Du Bois, was a civil rights activist, journalist, educator, and an American sociologist among many other things. In addition, Du Bois was an author of an extremely influential book, Ã¢â¬Å"The Souls of Black Folk.Ã¢â¬ Published in 1903, the Civil Rights Movement was merely at its peak when this occurred. Not only molding a form of sociology, Du Bois acted and performed in the movement inevitably. W.E.B. Du Bois lived from February 23rd, 1868 to August 27thRead MoreSlavery And Jim Crow Laws1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesabolitionism is were the journey for equality began with black political theorist like, David Walker, Fredrick Douglas, and Anna Julia Cooper. Decades later the Civil Rights Era would continue the work of those former slaves ultimately changing the treatment of black people nationwide. Black activist like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Mary McLeod Bethune along with several others can be accredited for the equal liberties obtained by blacks in America after decades of unjustified discrimination
Monday, December 16, 2019
Historical development of law enforcement agencies goes back to the United States Constitution. It tells how the federal, state, and local agencies came into existence, and what purpose they were to serve. This report will give details on each separate law enforcement agency, what their jurisdictions are, along with descriptions of the individual responsibilities pertaining to these various agencies primary purpose. We will write a custom essay sample on History of Law Enforcement or any similar topic only for you Order Now Surprisingly enough, these law enforcement agencies responsibilities, reach far and beyond just making arrest, patrolling neighborhoods, and keeping the public safe.These agencies serve a larger purpose than just enforcing the law, such as managing the agency, records keeping, financial records, and public service records. Public Order has a definition much more detailed than just keeping neighborhoods safe, controlling riots, and arresting offenders, with further detail given throughout this paper, expressing how important the need to understand the various aspects of each agency and the extensive responsibilities each perform within their jurisdiction. Also, seeing how they have evolved through the years. The development of modern municipal law enforcement procedures began with the creation of the London Metropolitan police in 1829. While previous existence of private systems had been voluntary. The year of 1829 clearly marked the beginning of a paid full-time public police force in London and the real inception of modern police administrationÃ¢â¬ (ibailey, 2007). Resources ibailey, Local Government Records Commission, July 25, 2007 Alabama Constitution of 1901 Code of Alabama 1975 Alabama Government Manual (1998)The Encyclopedia of Ã¢â¬Å"Police ScienceÃ¢â¬ by William G. Bailey (1989) Martin, David. AlabamaÃ¢â¬â¢s State and Local Government, 3rd edition (1988) Thomas, James D. and William H. Stewart. Alabama Government and Politics (1988) Timmons, Robert D. Ã¢â¬Å"Alabama SheriffsÃ¢â¬â¢ AssociationÃ¢â¬ (1996) Kathryn, I have altered and reworded some of it, and removed some citations. If you see a place that needs a citation, please let me know. I will be using these same references for my part on Local law enforcement, just so you will know ahead of time. Robbie How to cite History of Law Enforcement, Essays History of Law Enforcement Free Essays Ã¢â¬Å"Criminal Justice System, As Seen By MeÃ¢â¬ . CJS 100 Final Project History of Law Enforcement In Ancient China law enforcement was carried out by Ã¢â¬Å"perfects. Ã¢â¬ The notion of a Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ in China has existed for thousands of years. We will write a custom essay sample on History of Law Enforcement or any similar topic only for you Order Now In both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn periods the prefecture system developed. Within the Jin kingdom, dozens of perfects were spread across the kingdom, each having limited authority and a length of service. Over time and under the rule of Dang Lin Wang, an new judicial system emerged in which perfects were considered government officials appointed by local magistrates, who in turn were appointed by the emperor of the dynasty; a figure very similar to a head of state. The prefects oversaw the civil administration of their Ã¢â¬Å"prefecture,Ã¢â¬ or what is known today as a jurisdiction. Prefects usually reported to the local magistrates, just as modern police report to judges. Under each perfect were Ã¢â¬Å"sub prefectsÃ¢â¬ who helped collectively with law enforcement of the area. Over time the concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"prefecture systemÃ¢â¬ eventually spread to other cultures. For the most part, crime was viewed as a private matter in Ancient Greece and Rome. Even with offenses as serious as murder, justice was the prerogative of the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s family and private war or vendetta the means of protection against criminality. Publicly-owned slaves were used by magistrates as police in Ancient Greece. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, manhandling prisoners, and making arrests. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. During the middle Ages, crime and punishment were dealt with through blood feuds or trial by ordeal between the parties. Payment to the victim or their family was another common punishment, including for violent crimes. For those who could not afford to buy their way out of punishment, harsh penalties included various forms of corporal punishment. These included mutilation, whipping, branding, flogging, and execution. The code of law specifies exactly how much to pay, if anything, depending who was slain. The primary form of state-administered punishment during ancient times and the Middles Ages was banishment or exile. Though a prison existed as early as the 14th century in, incarceration was not widely used until the 19th century. The establishment of law enforcement and criminal justice during the Middle Ages and Ancient China was used as a model and other nations or civilizations formed their rules in which one should govern themselves by. When early colonists first came to America, they did not include trained lawyers or other law-knowledgeable persons. They followed the common law system; which included set of rules that were used to solve problems in society. It was based on the history of decisions that previous judges had made instead lawmaking codes or laws. This system made a distinction between two basic types of crimes: felonies and misdemeanors. The legal process, mostly for more serious crimes, involved a grand jury, composed of members of the community, which loved to commit crimes, which decided whether there was enough evidence for prosecution. However, in these proceedings no district attorneys or public prosecutors were available. The victim of the crime was responsible for instigating the prosecution and financing it. It was these fundamental principles that stuck with the colonists and were used selectively to create a new and unique criminal justice system. Many factors influenced the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ selection process by which they constructed their approach to criminal justice. Being that there were no professional lawyers this left a lot of room for creativity and mistakes. The colonists were pretty much left to their own devices concerning the details of their developing criminal justice system. The new environment the colonists encountered in the New World, especially the western frontier, also affected the way the law was shaped. The system was molded to fit the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ necessities as they settled further and further west. Vigilantism was an inevitable byproduct of the faults of the development of justice in America. Religion, especially early on in the colonial period, exerted a strong influence on law making. Legal codes, such as the 1648 Book of the General Laws and Liberties of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, contained very strong biblical references than did the ones in England. However, it should be said that this religious impact was felt most strongly in Puritan colonies. Similar ideas were evident in other colonists too. Many colonial makeshift criminal codes considered lying, idleness, drunkenness, certain sexual offenses, and even bad behavior as a crime. These moralistic crimes stemmed from the relation of crime to sin and sin to crime. Adding to the religious factor, the colonists held individual liberty in high regard. This later influenced more contemporary criminal codes. Criminal Justice Today A criminal justice system is a set of legal and social institutions for enforcing the criminal law in accordance with a defined set of procedural rules and limitations. There are separate federal, state, and military criminal justice systems. In addition each state has separate systems for adults and juveniles. Criminal justice systems include several major subsystems, composed of one or more public institutions and their staffs: police and other law enforcement agencies; trial and appellate courts; prosecution and public defender offices; probation and parole agencies; custodial institutions; and departments of corrections. Police Law enforcement agencies consist of both federal and state agencies. There are a wide range of federal offices which may include the protection of The President of the United States to the protection of mail. Most are more familiar with state police agencies those with general functions similar to local police and those with limited responsibilities, mainly involving highway patrol on state roads. A city police force is usually organized as one of several departments within the local government. The police are part of the local criminal justice system, which is the means by which society deals with criminals. The system includes the prosecuting attorneyÃ¢â¬â¢s office, the courts, probation offices, and corrections agencies. A police departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are to prevent crime, investigate crime and apprehend offenders, control traffic, maintain order, and deal with emergencies and disasters. In their efforts to prevent crime a police agency usually is composed of a patrol division, consisting of uniformed patrol officers and supervisors. However, the police force doe not end there; larger agencies are also composed of units that are responsible for criminal investigation, traffic control, special police units, noncriminal services, and police technology. All of the divisions of a police agency all come together to work in conjunction of the criminal justice system. Courts The courts serve as the venue where disputes are then settled and justice is administered. In accordance with laws and with regard to criminal justice a court setting is complied of people. The judge, is a person, that may have been elected or appointed and is knowledgeable with the aspects of law. It is the judge purpose to objectively and without bias administer the legal proceedings. Today guilt or innocence is decided through the system of law that relies on the contest between each advocate representing his or her partyÃ¢â¬â¢s positions and involves an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, trying to determine the truth of the case. This is also known as a adversarial system; where two parties will both offer their version of events and argue their case before the court. The case should be decided in favor of the party who offers the most sound and compelling arguments based on the law as applied to the facts of the case. In cases where a criminal offense was committed with sufficient evidence provide by the necessary policing agencies the prosecutor, or district attorney, brings charges against a person or corporate entity. A defense attorney counsels the accused on the legal process, likely outcomes for the accused and suggests strategies. The final determination of guilt or innocence is typically made by a third party, who is supposed to be disinterested. This function may be performed by a judge, a panel of judges, or a jury of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s peers. This process varies depending on the laws of the specific jurisdiction. In some places the panel is required to issue a unanimous decision, while in others only a majority vote is required. In America, this process depends on the state, level of court, and even agreements between the prosecuting and defending parties. Other nations do not use juries at all, or rely on theological or military authorities to issue verdicts. Corrections Offenders are then turned over to the correctional authorities, from the ourt system after the accused has been found guilty. Like all other aspects of criminal justice, the administration of punishment has taken many different forms throughout history. Early on, when civilizations lacked the resources necessary to construct and maintain prisons, exile and execution were the primary forms of punishment. Historically shame punishments and exile have also been us ed as forms of censure. The most publicly visible form of punishment in the modern era is the prison. Prisons may serve as detention centers for prisoners after trial. For containment of the accused, jails are used. Early prisons were used primarily to sequester criminals and little thought was given to living conditions within their walls. Punishment in the form of prison time may serve a variety of purposes. First, and most obviously, the incarceration of criminals removes them from the general population and inhibits their ability to perpetrate further crimes. Many societies also view prison terms as a form of revenge or retribution, and any harm or discomfort the prisoner suffers is Ã¢â¬Å"paybackÃ¢â¬ for the harm they caused their victims. A new goal of prison punishments is to offer criminals a chance to be rehabilitated. Many modern prisons offer schooling or job training to prisoners as a chance to learn a vocation and thereby earn a legitimate living when they are returned to society. Religious institutions also have a presence in many prisons, with the goal of teaching ethics and instilling a sense of morality in the prisoners. If a prisoner is released before his time is served, he is released as a parole. This means that they are released, but the restrictions are greater than that of someone on probation. There are numerous other forms of punishment which are commonly used in conjunction with or in place of prison terms. Monetary fines are one of the oldest forms of punishment still used today. These fines may be paid to the state or to the victims as a form of reparation. Probation and house arrest are also sanctions which seek to limit a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mobility and their opportunities to commit crimes without actually placing them in a prison setting. Many jurisdictions may require some form of public or community service as a form of reparations for lesser offenses. Effectiveness of the Criminal Justice System In my personal opinion, the justice system is not effectively meeting the four principles of sentencing, which are punishment, deterrence, protection of the public and the reformation and rehabilitation of the offender. The offenders need to go through a stiffer system to be ensured that they meet all four principles. For this to occur sentences must be long enough for individuals to reflect the serious consequences of their intended acts and rehabilitation should be mandatory. In order to effectively meet the four principles of the justice system, changes need to be made. The justice system needs to evaluate each offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s needs in order for them to become a productive member of society. No one should be ignored in the process of creating a better society. Punishment should be harsh and rehabilitation must be mandatory, while public safety is also kept in mind. There is no one perfect solution but ways need to be explored for the justice system to be efficient. Hale, Sandra Beatriz (July 2004). The Discourse of Court Interpreting: Discourse Practices of the Law, the Witness and the Interpreter How to cite History of Law Enforcement, Essays
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about theMedia Reflection for Woolworth and Coles. Answer: Strain in the relationship between Woolworth and Coles Woolworth and Coles have been partners for a long time in business. This joint venture has resulted in the introduction of lucrative facilities for the customers. As a matter of specification, both the organizations, Coles is one such name among the retail businesses after Woolworths. Speculating the earlier phases, deals, trades and transactions between Woolworth and Coles have benefitted the customers (Price, Bailey and Pyman 2014). Typical examples in this direction are the family shopping packages. However, consecutive declines in the billion dollar investment plans have compelled the managers of Woolworths to cease their partnership with Coles. Even after spending more than $1 billion, the managerial personnel have still not emerged successful in restoring the offer of king like family shopping. The major drive behind this is the exposure of negligence in terms of rectifying the potential errors in the marketing services. This negligence nullifies the confidence regarding the ca pability of Woolworths personnel to generate more revenue than Coles (Smh.com.au 2017). Viewing it from other perspective, the declaration to shun the partnership is illegal in the eyes of the law. Countering this, self decision of the managers to end the partnership terms is a kind of violation of the Partnership Act, which makes it obligatory for the organizations to under the terms and conditions carefully and then indulge into the contract. Generally, two business organizations indulge into partnership for earning more profit. Delving deep into the recent performance of Woolworths and Coles, Woolworths can be placed on a higher pedestral as compared to Coles. In view of this, the declaration to end the partnership terms seems appropriate (Bailey et al. 2015). Rather, it reflects the attempts of the managerial staffs in terms of bringing modifications in the business procedures. The immediate result of the situation was customer turnovers, which enhanced the authoritative powers of brands such as Aldi. However, chief executive of the brand is hopeful in terms of restoring the families through the means of offers, discounts and schemes on family shopping in the near future. Execution of promotional activities at an expense of $275 million seems inappropriate as compared to the reduction in the prices of the products. This motive projects an absence of oriental approach of the managers of Woolworths regarding the infrastructural development (Dixon, Hattersley and Isaacs 2014). The critiques are hopeful regarding the restoration of equilibrium between the supply and demand in the upcoming days. Indulging in meetings with the members of Trade Union seems a wise approach in terms of setting the prices of the goods and services. Within this, focus is being placed on the promotion of innovative goods. However, the article projects a long way that Woolworths needs to cover for improving the relationship with the customers. For this, the steps taken by the managers are just commendable. As a matter of specification, prices of the products have been reduced on an average of 2.4%. This possesses flexibility to restore at least some audience (Smh.com.au 2017). Along with this, number of staffs on Sundays has been increased for improving the losses achieved in the stock markets. Moreover, relations have been improved with the suppliers. Typical evidence of this is the supply of quality raw materials to the suppliers for its delivery to the customers. Dedication and commitment of the employees and managers was a turning point for Woolworths. Adoption of social media marketing enabled Woolworths to add maximum value to the profit margin (Smh.com.au 2017). Herein, lays the achievement of success on own terms, which is far more prestigious than sharing a collaborative loss. References Bailey, J., Price, R., Pyman, A. and Parker, J., 2015. Union power in retail: contrasting cases in Australia and New Zealand.New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online),40(1), p.1. Dixon, J., Hattersley, L. and Isaacs, B., 2014. Transgressing retail: supermarkets, liminoid power and the metabolic rift. InFood Transgressions: Making Sense of Contemporary Food Politics. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Price, R., Bailey, J. and Pyman, A., 2014. Varieties of collaboration: the case of an Australian retail union.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,25(6), pp.748-761. Smh.com.au (2017). Woolworth goes after the family spend. Availiable at: https://www.smh.com.au/business/retail/woolworths-goes-after-the-family-spend-20170222-guiqzn.html [Aessed on 21st May 2017] Article link: https://www.smh.com.au/business/retail/woolworths-goes-after-the-family-spend-20170222-guiqzn.html
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Test Preparation: Campbell Biology Paper Chapter 31: Fungi Though fungal divisions have traditionally been based on modes of sexual reproduction, molecular considerations are becoming more important. Consequently, no emphasis has been placed on the vagaries of sexual and asexual reproduction among various fungi in this Test Bank. Instead, new questions assess students abilities to think logically about fungal morphology, genetics, and ecology. Two new sets of scenario questions deal with the biology of microsporidians and chytrids, ungi thought to play a substantial role in the worldwide decline of many amphibians. If you need assistance with a paper or task on a different biological subject, do not hesitate to contact our team from Ascendnaamba.org, professional essay writing service! Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The hydrolytic digestion of which of the following should produce monomers that are aminated (i. e. , have an amine group attached) molecules of -glucose? We will write a custom essay sample on Test Preparation: Campbell Biology specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Test Preparation: Campbell Biology specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Test Preparation: Campbell Biology specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A) insect exoskeleton; B) plant cell walls; C) fungal cell walls; D) Three of these responses are correct. E) Two of these responses are correct. Answer: E. Topic: Concept 31. Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 2) If all fungi in an environment that perform decomposition were to suddenly die, then which group of organisms should benefit most, due to the fact that their fungal ompetitors have been removed? A) plants; B) protists; C) prokaryotes; D) animals; E) mutualistic fungi. Answer: C. Skill: Application/Analysis 3) When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter? A) fungal haustoria; B) soredia; C) fungal enzymes; D) increased oxygen levels. 4) Which of the following is a characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi featuring hyphae)? A) They acquire their nutrients by phagocytosis. B) Their body plan is a unicellular sphere. C) Their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils. D) They are adapted for rapid directional growth to new food sources. E) They reproduce asexually by a process known as budding. Answer: D. 5) The functional significance of porous septa in certain fungal hyphae is most similar to that represented by which pair of structures in animal cells and plant cells, respectively? A) desmosomesotonoplasts; B) gap Junctionsoplasmodesmata; C) tight Junctionsoplastids; D) centriolesoplastids; E) flagellaocentral vacuoles. Answer: B. 6) What do fungi and arthropods have in common? A) Both groups are commonly coenocytic. B) The haploid state is dominant in both groups. C) Both groups are predominantly heterotrophs that ingest their food. D) The protective coats of both groups are made of chitin. E) Both groups have cell walls. 7) In septate fungi, what structures allow cytoplasmic streaming to distribute needed nutrients, synthesized compounds, and organelles throughout the hyphae? A) multiple chitinous layers in cross-walls; B) pores in cross-walls; C) complex microtubular cytoskeletons; D) two nuclei; E) tight Junctions that form in cross-walls between cells rapid distribution of synthesized proteins by cytoplasmic streaming; F) a long tubular body shape; G) the readily available nutrients from their ingestive mode of nutrition; H) a dikaryotic condition that supplies greater amounts of proteins and nutrients. Answer: A. 9) The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are? A) composed of hyphae. B) referred to as a mycelium. C) usually underground. 10) Both fungus-farming ants and their fungi can synthesize the same structural polysaccharide from the -glucose. What is this polysaccharide? A) amylopectin; B) chitin; C) cellulose; D) lignin; E) glycogen. 11) Consider two hyphae having equal dimensions: one from a septate species and the other from a coenocytic species. Compared with the septate species, the coenocytic species should have A) fewer nuclei. B) more pores. C) less chitin. D) less cytoplasm. E) reduced cytoplasmic streaming. 12) Immediately after karyogamy occurs, which term applies? A) plasmogamy; B) heterokaryotic; C) dikaryotic; D) diploid. 13) Which description does not apply equally well to both sexual and asexual spores? A) have haploid nuclei; B) represent the dispersal stage; C) are produced by meiosis; D) upon germination, will subsequently undergo S phase and mitosis. Answer: C. Topic: Concept 31. 2 14) Plasmogamy can directly result in which of the following? 1 . haploid nucleus 2. heterokaryotic cells 3. dikaryotic cells 4. ells with two diploid nuclei. A) 1 or 2. B) 1 or 3. E) 3 or 4 cells with a single. 15) After cytokinesis occurs in budding yeasts, the daughter cell has a: A) smaller nucleus and more cytoplasm than the mother cell. B) smaller nucleus and less cytoplasm than the mother cell. C) larger nucleus and less cytoplasm than the mother cell. D) similar nucleus and less cytoplasm than the mother cell. 16) In most fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which consequently: A) means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures. B) results in multiple diploid nuclei per cell. C) allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time. D) results in heterokaryotic or dikaryotic cells. E) is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic. Answer: D. 17) If all of their nuclei are equally active transcriptionally, then the cells of both dikaryotic and heterokaryotic fungi, in terms of the gene products they can make, are essentially: A) haploid. B) diploid. D) completely homozygous. E) completely hemizygous. 18) Which process occurs in fungi and has the opposite effect on a cells chromosome number than does meiosis l? A) mitosis; B) plasmogamy; C) crossing over; D) binary fission; E) karyogamy. 19) Which of the following statements is true of deuteromycetes? A) They are the second of five fungal phyla to have evolved. B) They represent the phylum in which all the fungal components of lichens are classified. C) They are the group of fungi that have, at present, no known sexual stage. D) They are the group that includes molds, yeasts, and lichens. E) They include the imperfect fungi that lack hyphae. 20) Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants. What combination of environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution f both fungi and plants? A) presence of coal forests and change in mode of nutrition B) periods of drought and presence of filamentous body shape C) predominance in swamps and presence of cellulose in cell walls D) colonization of land and loss of flagellated cells E) continental drift and mode of spore dispersal Topic: Concept 31. 3 21) Which of the following characteristics is shared by both chytrids and other kinds of fungi? A) presence of flagella; B) zoospores; C) autotrophic mode of nutrition; D) cell walls of cellulose; E) nucleotide sequences of several genes common ancestry. 22) B) by convergent evolution. C) by inheritance of acquired traits. D) by natural means, and is a homology. E) by serial endosymbioses. 23) Asexual reproduction in yeasts occurs by budding. Due to unequal cytokinesis, the bud cell receives less cytoplasm than the parent cell. Which of the following should be true of the smaller cell until it reaches the size of the larger cell? A) It should produce fewer fermentation products per unit time. B) It should produce ribosomal RNA at a slower rate. C) It should be transcriptionally less active. D) It should have reduced motility. E) It should have a smaller nucleus. Answer: A. 24) The microsporidian, Brachiola gambiae, parasitizes the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Adult female mosquitoes must take blood meals in order for their eggs to develop, and it is while they take blood that they transmit malarial parasites to humans. Male mosquitoes drink flower nectar. If humans are to safely and effectively use Brachiola gambiae as a biological control to reduce human deaths from malaria, then how many of the following statements should be true? 1 . Brachiola should kill the mosquitoes before the malarial parasite they carry reaches maturity. 2. The icrosporidian should not be harmful to other insects. 3. Microsporidians should infect mosquito larvae, rather than mosquito adults. 4. The subsequent decline in anopheline mosquitoes should not significantly disrupt human food resources or other food webs. 5. Brachiola must be harmful to male mosquitoes, but not to female mosquitoes. A) one statement only; B) two statements; C) three statements; D) four statements; E) all five statements. Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation 25) Many infected animals are induced by the parasitic microsporidians to develop huge cells, known as xenomas, which are full of spores. Given their large size, what should be true of the xenomas? A) The parasite must endow the xenoma with some obtain mitochondria to survive. C) The xenoma must gain a cell wall; otherwise, it will lyse. D) The xenoma acts as a prison, of sorts, to keep the spores from escaping and infecting other organisms. Topic: Concepts 31. 30 26) What are the sporangia of the bread mold Rhizopus? A) asexual structures that produce haploid spores; B) asexual structures that produce diploid spores; C) sexual structures that produce haploid spores; D) sexual structures that produce diploid spores. Topic: Concept 31. 27) Which of these paired fungal structures are structurally and functionally most alike? A) conidia and basidiocarps; B) sporangia and hyphae; C) soredia and gills; D) haustoria and arbuscules; E) zoospores and mycelia. 28) You are given an organism to identify. It has a fruiting body that contains many structures with eight haploid spores lined up in a row. What kind of a fungus is this? A) zygomycete; B) ascomycete; C) deuteromycete; D) chytrid; E) basidiomycete. 29) Which of the following has the least affiliation with all of the others? A) Glomeromycota; B) mycorrhizae; C) lichens; D) arbuscules. 30) Arrange the following from largest to smallest: 1. ascospore; 2. ascocarp; 3. ascomycete; 4. ascus. 31) Arrange the following from largest to smallest, assuming that they all come from the same fungus. 1. asidiocarp; 2. basidium; 3. basidiospore; 4. mycelium; 5. gill. 32) Among sac fungi, which of these correctly distinguishes ascospores from conidia? A) Ascospores are diploid, whereas conidia are haploid. B) Ascospores are produced only by meiosis, whereas conidia are produced only by mitosis. C) Ascospores have undergone genetic recombination during their production, whereas conidia have not. D) Ascospores are larger, whereas conidia are smaller. E) Ascospores will germinate into haploid hyphae, whereas conidia will germinate into diploid hyphae. Answer: C 33) A fungal spore germinates, giving rise to a mycelium that grows outward into the soil surrounding the site where the spore originally landed. Which of the following accounts for the fungal movement, as described here? A) karyogamy; B) mycelial flagella; C) breezes distributing spores; D) cytoplasmic streaming in hyphae. 34) In what structures do both Penicillium and Aspergillus produce asexual spores? A) asci B) zygosporangia; C) rhizoids; D) gametangia; E) conidiophores. 35) Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, that inhibit the growth of bacteria are known as: A) antibodies. B) aflatoxins. C) hallucinogens. D) antigens. E) antibiotics. Topic: Concept 31. 5 36) Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and: A) mosses. B) cyanobacteria. C) green algae. 37) In both lichens and mycorrhizae, what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner? A) carbohydrates; B) fixed nitrogen; C) antibiotics; D) water and minerals. 38) protection from harmful UV involved in lichens? A) Fungal cells are enclosed within algal cells. B) Lichen cells are enclosed within fungal cells. C) Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae. D) The fungi grow on rocks and trees and are covered by algae. E) Algal cells and fungal cells mix together without any apparent structure. Answer: C. 39) If haustoria from the fungal partner were to appear within the photosynthetic partner of a lichen, and if the growth rate of the photosynthetic partner consequently slowed substantially, then this would support the claim that: A) algae and cyanobacteria are autotrophic. B) lichens are not purely mutualistic relationships. C) algae require maximal contact with the fungal partner in order to grow at optimal ates. D) fungi get all of the nutrition they need via the leakiness of photosynthetic partners. E) soredia are asexual reproductive structures combining both the fungal and photosynthetic partners. Answer: B. 40) When pathogenic fungi are found growing on the roots of grape vines, grape farmers sometimes respond by covering the ground around their vines with plastic sheeting and pumping a gaseous fungicide into the soil. The most important concern of grape farmers who engage in this practice should be that the: A) fungicide might also kill the native yeasts residing on the surfaces of the grapes. B) lichens growing n the vines branches are not harmed. C) fungicide might also kill mycorrhizae. D) sheeting is transparent so that photosynthesis can continue. Answer: C. 41) Which of the following terms refers to symbiotic relationships that involve fungi living between the cells in plant leaves? A) pathogens; B) endosymbioses; C) endophytes; D) lichens; E) mycorrhizae. 42) If Penicillium typically secretes penicillin without disturbing the lichen relationship in which it is engaged, then what must have been true about its partner? A) It should have lacked peptidoglycan in its cell wall. B) It was probably a red alga.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Buildings of Worship in Ancient Art Cultures essays Ancient art covers a variety of different cultures, religions, and artworks. Most of what we know about the people of this time period comes from the studies of the archaeological remains, artifacts, and literature. From these studies we can gather that religion played a very important role in the societies of this time. The buildings of worship in Ancient Egypt and Greece vary in many ways while representing their cultures way of life. In the Egyptian culture religion embodied every aspect of their life. The Egyptian faith was based on an unorganized collection of ancient myths, nature, and numerous divine beings. Our text refers to their religious practices as magical. The most important belief the Egyptians practiced was mummification. The need to preserve the body for life after death was very important to them. Egyptian art demonstrates a keen observance of nature. Animals along with many other images of nature appear in all remains of this culture. Animals usually were symbols associated with life after death, the characteristics of the gods, and the power of the king. The temples of the Egyptian culture are an amazing architecture feat. They were made of stone, so that they would last forever. The basic temple was built to look impressive because the Egyptians believed they were the dwellings of their god. Every city built a temple for their god. These temples were a place for man to communicat e with the gods; however, only Pharaoh and the high priests were allowed inside of the temple. To enter inside the temple one must be proven worthy and ready to acquire the higher knowledge and insights. Upon entering a temple, after passing through the statues of sphinxes and pylon, is the courtyard. There are many rooms beyond the courtyard each more scared than the one before. After walking through another pylon, you enter the hypostyle hall. This hall is made to resemble a papyrus plant and the only...
Friday, November 22, 2019
French Expressions Using Champ The French word un champ literally means field and is also used in many idiomatic expressions. Learn how to say sphere of activity, battlefield, having room to move, and more with this list of expressions with champ. Possible Meanings of Un Champ field (all senses)area, domainshot, frame (filming)champagne (apocope) Expressions with Un Champ un champ closcombat areaun champ dactionsphere of activityun champ dactivitÃ ©sphere of activityun champ daviationairfieldun champ davoinefield of oatsun champ de bataillebattlefieldun champ de blÃ ©field of corn/wheatun champ de coursesracecourseun champ de foirefairgroundun champ de manoeuvreparade groundun champ de minesminefieldun champ de neigesnowfieldun champ de tirshooting range, field of fireun champ de trÃ ¨flefield of cloverun champ de visionvisual fieldun champ dhonneurfield of honorun champ Ã ©lectriqueelectric fieldun champ magnÃ ©tiquemagnetic fieldun champ opÃ ©ratoireoperative fieldun champ optiqueoptical fieldun champ ouvertopen fieldun champ visuelvisual fieldles champscountry(side)les Champs Ãâ°lysÃ ©esElysian Fields (mythology), street in Paris tout bout de champall the time, at every opportunitydans le champin the shot/picture (filming)en champ closbehind closed doorsen robe des champsunpeeled (potatoes)une fleur des champswild flowerhors champoff-camer ala profondeur de champsdepth of fieldsur-le-champimmediately, right awayla vie aux champscountry lifeavoir du champto have room to moveavoir le champ libreto be free to do as one pleasesLe champ est libre. The coast is clear.Ã ©largir le champto broaden the scopelaisser du champ quelquunto leave someone room to movelaisser le champ libre quelquunto leave someone a clear fieldmourir au champ dhonneurto be killed in actionpasser travers champsto go through/across fields/countryprendre du champsto step/stand backprendre la clÃ © des champsto run awayse retrouver en plein(s) champ(s)to find oneself in the middle of a fieldsonner aux champsto sound the general salute (military)sortir du champto go out of shot (filming)tomber au champ dhonneurto be killed in actiontravailler aux champsto work in the fields
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Comparing between harvey norman and wesfarmers ( financially) - Essay Example On the other hand, stock price appreciates almost exclusively through good financial results. Through the use of financial analysis, this paper compares the performance of two companies Harvey Norman and Westfarmers in different financial aspects namely liquidity, profitability, asset efficiency and capital structures. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to generate wealth for its stockholders is the ultimate measure of the financial performance of a business organization and should become the basis of where to invest. It should be noted that as opposed to creditors, companies have little liability to its stockholders. Before dividends are paid, current liabilities are first settled together with long term obligations. In fact, payments to stockholders are not required. Thus, stockholders have the last claim in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings and if it is able to keep much for them after other liabilities are settled, the business organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s stock is considered as a better investment. In this consideration, this paper recommends the use of return of equity as the sole ratio for the investment decision. Thus, investment in Harvey Norman appears to be more profitable than Westfarmers. It should be noted that during the fiscal year 2007, Harvey NormanÃ¢â¬â¢s return on equity is 26.74% which represents an increase of 8.7% from the 18.04% recorded in 2006. This is much higher than the 0.125% recorded by Westfarmers in 2007. Thus, we recommend that funds should be better invested in Harvey Norman as it has a better ability of maximizing shareholder wealth through higher
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The Dawes Act and the 1924 Indian Citizenship Act - Essay Example The early colonists believed that it was part of their destiny to conquer the west and the northern American wilderness but the Indians stood along the way and its God-given destiny (Kline 2000,p.24). At first, US treated the Indians as sovereign and independent people by negotiating treaties with them but the treaties only ended up with the Indians ceding their lands in return for desolate, barren lands elsewhere. This ended with President James Monroe's declaration that Indians be removed and resettled beyond the Mississippi River for their own best interests (American Philosophical Society 2000,p.65) Thus the Cherokees from Georgia appealed to the Supreme Court to prevent the seizure of their lands.However, Chief Justice John Marshall declared all Indians as without sovereignty and people who "reside within the acknowledged boundaries of the United States" and are "in a state of pupilage"(Cherokee Nation v Georgia). But he later on declared the Cherokees as a distinct political community "in which the laws of Georgia can have no force" and into which Georgians are prohibited to enter without treaty permission (Worcester v Georgia). The Supreme Court then declared all Indians to be under the complete control of the US government but ironically, they cannot be citizens as contemplated by the 14th Amendment because they belonged to 'alien nations'(Elk v Wilkins, 1884). As such, all Indians were impounded in assigned reservations to their consternation on the basis of national security and military necessity after they ceded their ancestral lands and were not allowed to leave without a permit. But in one case, the court adjudicated that Indians are entitled to the same legal protection and freedom as the Americans (Standing Bear v Crook, 1879). The Dawes Act of 1887 or The General Allotment Act The first idea of Indian citizenship was broached by Thomas Jefferson but he laid down an extensive list of prerequisites prior to giving them citizenship (American Philosophical Society 2000, p.63). He also voiced out his plans to civilize the Indians and slowly assimilate them to the mainstream of American society. He also revealed his plans to give the Indians parcels of land to farm. All these served as impetus for Congress to enact the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Act on February 8,1887. The rationale behind the statute was to civilize and assimilate the Indians
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Brutality of Slavery Essay In history, slavery has been a large problem in The United States and has caused many issues. We know slavery as history, while people like Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs knew slavery as their lives. Frederick Douglass was a man who was born and raised as a slave, he never knew his mother and watched many terrifying things as a child. Another known slave was Harriet Jacobs; she was a slave who was abused in many ways. Both of these slaves lived through hardship and turbulence growing up. Most people could not even fathom the pain and suffering these two slaves endured. They were considered to be chattel slaves. Chattel is a type of slavery. According to Dictionary. com chattel is Ã¢â¬Å"any article of tangible property other than land, buildings, and other things annexed to land. Ã¢â¬ Slaveholders feel as though their slaves have no rights and they are their own property. Most slaves during this time were chattel slaves and were treated very poorly by there slaveholders. In his essay on brutality toward slaves, Frederick Douglass shares some of the horrors that were his reality. As a slave himself, he understands from first-hand experience how badly slaves were treated. He mentions emotional and physical abuse he received from his slaveholder. He talked about how the slaves were not allowed to know how old they were or information that might expose them to more about their families. Douglass mentioned the fact that slaveholders would whip the slaves until bloody while making other slaves watch. Slaveholders would shoot and kill their slaves if they did not follow orders, Douglass acknowledges. Slaveholders would keep all personal information from their slaves. The fact that a slave would not have the right to know how old they are would create emotional hardship and eliminate an important sense of self. Some slaveholders would not allow the slave to know anything about his or her mother or father. They would give the slaves very little information so they could not investigate further. Douglass was one of the slaves who barely knew his own mother. The most he ever saw her was just a few times at night while he was sleeping. She would take the long trip to see him after a long day in the fields, but she would have to be back before morning came the next day. Only being able to see oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother three or four times in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and not being able to know anymore information about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, would be considered abuse in many ways. Whipping a slave was a very normal action in this time. Slaves, whether they Ã¢â¬ËdeservedÃ¢â¬â¢ it or not, could be whipped for many reasons. Douglass mentions many times when his slaveholder would whip his own aunt. Douglass said, Ã¢â¬Å"I have often been awakened at the dawn of day by the most heart-rending shrieks of an own aunt of mine, whom he used to tie up to a joist, and whip upon her naked back till she was literally covered with blood. Ã¢â¬ His slaveholder took great pleasure in whipping and torturing his slaves. It is heartbreaking knowing that it was considered socially and morally okay to commit such brutalities. Douglass talks about a time when a slave named Demby was shot and killed in front of an entire plantation of slaves. The slaveholder told Demby to come to him, but Demby refused, so the slaveholder took out his gun and shot him. A thrill of horror flashed through every soul upon the plantationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ said Douglass. The slaveholder said that he killed him because he was Ã¢â¬Å"unmanageable. Ã¢â¬ He also said that Demby was setting a bad example for the other slaves and if he did not take care of the problem, the other slaves would follow. Women played a vital role in slavery, the pain and suffering they had to endure was terrible. Women had to bear hardship in many different ways such as sexual abuse, chattel type slavery, and the relationship between the slaveholder, his wife and the slave. All of these rigorous situations are forced upon an African American woman creating emotional and physical abuse. While reading Incidences in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs, one could notice a constant theme in the slaveholderÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology toward the slave. As brought up earlier, most slaves were chattel slaves, meaning that their slaveholders treated them as if they were property and with no respect. Jacobs says, Ã¢â¬Å"He told me I was his property; that I must be subject to his will in all things. Ã¢â¬ (Jacobs pg. 2). Obviously, Mr.Ã Flint treated Jacobs as if he had zero respect for her. Jacobs mid teen years is when her life as a slave girl escalated. Mr. Flint, her slaveholder had absolutely no respect for the fact that she was an innocent young girl. Ã¢â¬Å"My master began to whisper foul words in my ear. Young as I was, I could not remain ignorant of their import. Ã¢â¬ (Jacobs pg. 1). These actions were not uncommon in slaveholder/slave relationships because of the sense of ownership. The wife of the slaveholder and her relationship to the female slave, in this case being Jacobs, could be detrimental. Not only the relationship between the wife and the female slave is important in history, but it also creates a struggle between the African American female and the slaveholder. The wife could be considered psychotic because of the jealously placed in a relationship such as theirs. Jacobs mentioned thatÃ¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦she spent many a sleepless night to watch over me. Sometimes I woke up, and found her bending over me. Ã¢â¬ Most people, whether in the same relationship as them or not would think that is weird and would have psychotic tendencies. Insidences in the Life of a Slave Girl and Both narratives written by Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs were tools in the abolition of slavery. The narratives gave African Americans a voice. They brought international attention to the issues and brutality of slavery. This basically put pressure on the United States to address the issue. Also, the ideology of slavery is based on the belief that blacks are inferior to whites. When sociologists first began trying to explain inferiority, a big argument was that there was no African literature. These narratives really showed the eloquence of African people.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Being Different - Short Story Matthew had lived down the street from me most my life, and yet I still knew very little about him except for his name and his disability. Poor Matthew had been born retarded, and also owned many slight disabilities which made the mere act of living more difficult than it should have to be. Matthew was now a full grown man but he had the mind of a nine year old. He looked like an adult, but his actions and behaviour were definitely those of a young child. He walked with difficulty, and was visibly clumsy and uncoordinated. Life had not been easy for Matthew, and it seemed the older he was, the harder things got. When he was younger, even though he was teased by his peers he at least appeared to fit in with his classmates. Even though at second glance, it was easy to recognize the differences between Matthew and the other kids, Matthew did not really stand out in the crowd. Now as a full grown man Matthew looked out of place, no matter where he was, or who he was with. I ...
Monday, November 11, 2019
Each person has a different ritual to start the day. Some might think that their day hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t started without having a cold shower, others demand watching the news, and there might be others paying attention to shallower things like wearing perfume before going out. That is perfectly fine. But, do these people include breakfast in their rituals? What number of people says that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t get out of the house without having breakfast first? Is the breakfast something essential to start a good day? Yes. The body can be compared with a car. It needs fuel to run. It must be fuelled several times each day to function efficiently. In the morning, after many hours without food, it is primordial to refuel it to provide the necessary energy to go through the first part of the day successfully. Eating the first meal of the day is one of the most important things a person should do in the morning. Families should inculcate the knowledge about the importance of it. Media marketing should be more devoted to teach people how to begin a morning. People in general should be more responsible about their health. Nowadays, it is a concern to see how many people make the mistake of getting high-sugar and high-fat foods for breakfast, or even worst, skip it, without considering the consequences. People show the level of importance they give to breakfast in their morning habits. There are three kinds of thoughts regarding breakfast. The first one can be shown by a person who is aware of his/her health. This type of person knows that the breakfast gives a rewarding feeling to the body, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the correct way to start a day. In their kitchens, they might have a slice of wheat bread with eggs, joined by fresh fruit and a cup of natural orange juice waiting to be eaten. According to Cindy Maynard, dietician and a health medical writer, in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Start Your Day with a Breakfast Boost. Ã¢â¬ She says that eating breakfast improves the ability to concentrate and weight control, reduces the risk of heart disease, and increases strength and energy. This will be likely to occur if the body receives the correct food. Generally, health professionals recommend eating a breakfast consisting of protein, whole grains, and fruits. It makes sense to ingest these things after spending the entire previous night without food. If the body and the brain donÃ¢â¬â¢t obtain the correct food, they are not going to function as good as they could because they have no energy or strength to perform right. Healthy food is what the body and the brain need to function in the most optimal way, and it will keep the stomach satiated until the next meal. Other kinds of persons claim eating breakfast, but do they specify what kind of food are getting? Here is where the second thought about breakfast is demonstrated. They usually get the foods that should be avoided because they are high in sugar, sodium, and saturated fats. They have the mistaken belief that a sweet cup of coffee, a muffin or bacon and sausage can be considered a good breakfast. In their minds, they may think that because they have eaten something, they are starting the day well. However, they may also wonder why they are hungry at mid-morning, and why their energy boost doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t last very long even after having consumed breakfast. Making a poor choice of breakfast will give an extremely short energy boost that will make the body feel tired and hungry again after a short period of time. This is pancreasÃ¢â¬â¢ fault, which responded to the huge amount of sugar introduced in the bloodstream producing insulin in order to bring the levels of glucose back down to a reasonable amount. Also, the long term effect on health for these people can be guessed. Finally, the third thought about breakfast is from people that donÃ¢â¬â¢t take breakfast as a serious business, and they choose the worst decision: skipping breakfast. These people neglect the first meal of the day saying silly excuses like they lack of time. They prefer to spend extra time sleeping or finding the perfect outfit, maybe they are following the latest diet trend, or they are just feeling no hunger. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the harm they are making to themselves. When the body doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have energy, there are more probabilities of feeling tired, dizzy, and irritable, or having poor concentration. These people are likely to find themselves craving for something later because the body is asking for an energy boost. It is possible that they become so hungry that they will be eating more at one or two meals than other people eat in three or four. Busy lifestyles, wearing a good outfit or sleeping more should not impede health. The problem can be solved if the breakfast is planned. For those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel hungry after waking up, they should try eating small bits of food and then slowly increase their intake as their system grows accustomed to it. Also, they have to stop eating meals late in the evening. This leaves food in the stomach the next morning and prevents them from being hungry when they first wake up. Breakfast skippers havenÃ¢â¬â¢t learned how to start a good day. Their excuses for skipping breakfast are trivialities. Jim Rohn once said, Ã¢â¬Å"If you really want to do something, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find a way. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find an excuse. Ã¢â¬ It seems like that quote was written for them. It is time to form healthier habits that will benefit the body and improve its well-being. The time to break bad habits has come. Eating breakfast is the way that happiest days start. There are a lot of breakfast options that fit to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyles. It is better to wake up earlier and have a nutritious breakfast that going out without eating anything. The body and the brain will appreciate it. Finally, for those who are not yet convinced of the importance of breakfast, they should try an experiment. They must eat a good and healthy breakfast for an entire week, and then try another week skipping it. Thereafter, they should analyze and make a comparison about how they felt each week including aspects like mood, energy and strength. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a great probability of feeling a difference believe it or not. The body will notice the difference and the brain will say that mothers and nutritionist were right about breakfast.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Q. 2 what are the types of groups and group dynamics? Answer2: A social process by which people interacts with each other in small group is known as group dynamics. The word dynamic is Greek word which means study of forces operating within a group for the social interaction. Interaction in small group is not always governed by rules and regulations and conventions. In these small groups social relations between persons may play an important role in communication. The Word Dynamics means force. The term group dynamics refers to the forces operating wide in groups for social interest. The investigation of group dynamics consists of a study of these forces and the conditions modifying them. The practical application of group dynamics consists of the utilisation of knowledge about these forces for the achievement of some purpose. Group dynamics is the combination of the certain techniques to be used within groups. GROUP TYPES One common way to classify group is by whether they are formal or informal in nature. Formal work groups are established by an organization to achieve organizational goals. Formal groups may take the form of command groups, task groups, and functional groups. Formal & Informal groups: Formal groups are created and maintained to fulfil specific needs related to the overall organizational mission: a. Designed by Top management for achieving organizational goals b. Concentrates more on the performance of job c. People are placed in hierarchy and their status determined accordingly d. Co-ordination of members are controlled through process, procedures etc Informal Groups are created in the organization because of social and psychological forces operating at the workplace. a. A natural outcome at the work place & not designed and planned b. Organization is coordinated by group norms and not by norms of the formal organization c. Such group associations are not specified in the blue-print of the formal organization COMMAND GROUPS. Command groups are specified by the organizational chart and often consist of a supervisor and the subordinates that report to that supervisor. An example of a command group is an academic department chairman and the faculty members in that department. TASK GROUPS. Task groups consist of people who work together to achieve a common task. Members are brought together to accomplish a narrow range of goals within a specified time period. Task groups are also commonly referred to as task forces. The organization appoints members and assigns the goals and tasks to be accomplished. Examples of assigned tasks are the development of a new product, the improvement of a production process, or the proposal of a motivational contest. Other common task groups are ad hoc committees, project groups, and standing committees. Ad hoc committees are temporary groups created to resolve a specific complaint or develop a process. Project groups are similar to ad hoc committees and normally disband after the group completes the assigned task. Standing committees are more permanent than ad hoc committees and project groups. They maintain longer life spans by rotating members into the group. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS. A functional group is created by the organization to accomplish specific goals within an unspecified time frame. Functional groups remain in existence after achievement of current goals and objectives. Examples of functional groups would be a marketing department, a customer service department, or an accounting department. In contrast to formal groups, informal groups are formed naturally and in response to the common interests and shared values of individuals. They are created for purposes other than the accomplishment of organizational goals and do not have a specified time frame. Informal groups are not appointed by the organization and members can invite others to join from time to time. Informal groups can have a strong influence in organizations that can either be positive or negative. For example, employees who form an informal group can either discuss how to improve a production process or how to create shortcuts that jeopardize quality. Informal groups can take the form of interest groups, friendship groups, or reference groups. FRIENDSHIP GROUPS. Friendship groups are formed by members who enjoy similar social activities, political beliefs, religious values, or other common bonds. Members enjoy each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company and often meet after work to participate in these activities. For example, a group of employees who form a friendship group may have an exercise group, a softball team, or a potluck lunch once a month. REFERENCE GROUPS. A reference group is a type of group that people use to evaluate themselves. According to Cherrington, the main purposes of reference groups are social validation and social comparison. Social validation allows individuals to justify their attitudes and values while social comparison helps individuals evaluate their own actions by comparing themselves to others. Reference groups have a strong influence on membersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior. By comparing themselves with other members, individuals are able to assess whether their behaviour is acceptable and whether their attitudes and values are right or wrong. Reference groups are different from the previously discussed groups because they may not actually meet or form voluntarily. For example, the reference group for a new employee of an organization may be a group of employees that work in a different department or even a different organization. Family, friends, and religious affiliations are strong reference groups for most individuals. Factors influencing Team and GroupÃ Dynamics Following are some of the factors which influence Team and Group Dynamics. The factors are as follows:Ã 1. The Context of the Team The country and geographic region form a larger culture in which the organization operates. All of these contribute to the economic, political, technical, and cultural climates in which the organization, the team, and the individuals operate. 2. The Organization The kind of organization, such as business, or non-profit, along with the organizational culture will influence the team functioning just as much as the division of the organization such as sales, research, operations, etc. 3. The Team Identity Teams have an identity of their own. This identity stems from the interrelationship of the larger culture, the organizational culture, the team configuration, the nature of the work (purpose), and the qualities of the individuals. It is not the sum of the types, or preferences, or temperaments of the team members. There are many kinds of teams including ad hoc, project, executive, management, committees, and so on. Each team has a charter to fulfil a certain role in the organization. Team dynamics is heavily influenced by the nature and purpose of the work to be done by the team. 4. The Individuals Within this mix of influences are the individual team members who likely have specific kinds of work to perform and specific roles on the team. Individual members influence the team dynamics as well, so much so that when the composition of the team changes, the team dynamics will change.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Declaration of Teens Essays Declaration of Teens Essay Declaration of Teens Essay do hereby unite together to decal are our rights from our society. For many generations our society view todays teenage therapeutically, in image that mass media has portrayed us. We are seen as b Ewing ignorant, selfish, self indulgent, obsessed with materialism and irresponsible . It is unfair r to be judged so severely and it is now time for us to take over against these injustices. Adults would be so quick to judge teens for their responsibilities when adult s can be just as reckless. Adults say we drink and drive but not all of us do, in fact, some e teens are very responsible and mature and that can be proven with academic grades an d a good armament record with no suspensions. They say we do drugs therefore, we would have drug test on a timely basis. Adults blame us for our foul actions but adults also do wrong. With them teaching us the teenagers they have to be responsible and most of the m arent. In the last couple decades, social media has portrayed teens as a bad thing buy t now it is our chance to prove these generalizations wrong. We, the Teenagers of the Society of the U. S. , hereby declare our rights and show the world that not all teenagers are I irresponsible.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Information Technology is one of the most trending educational sectors in US. Thousands of students are now pursing various courses of Information Technology, since this domain is making significant progress; hence, students are being more attracted towards this field of study. With the advancements in technology all over the world, Information Technology is one of the subjects that is in high demand among the students. Studying Information Technology in bachelorsÃ¢â¬â¢ level or Masters level opens various career prospects for a student. The various career options are mentioned as follows: One of the most common job profiles that a student with a degree in Information Technology might pursue is being an IT consultant (Badage & Karande, 2016). This is one of the most common designations where the students find employment. Being an IT consultant, an employee has to work in partnership with the clients and advising them successfully to meet the business objectives, using all the resources in the best way, with the minimum cost. Ã A web-content developer design and create various websites. They take care of the various features of a website and enhance the performances, such that the users are able to experience a good user interface and a better navigation in the website (Baller, Dutta & Lanvin, 2016). Ã Ã A system administrator has the responsibility for the overall administration of a computer system, such that the system works efficiently and performs well, in order to maintain the ease of usability, along with decreasing the wait time for each activity (Benson, Morgan & Filippaios, 2014). Ã Ã One of the most popular career options that a person with a degree in Information Technology might pursue is that of a Network architect. This person is responsible for designing of the computer network, along with enhancing the communication systems of a business organization. A database administrator is responsible for maintaining the integrity of a database of any organization (Benson, Morgan & Filippaios, 2014). The responsibilities include maintaining the security of a database and troubleshoot as and when there is trouble in the database. Studying Information Technology might find employment as a data analyst as well. A data analyst is responsible for interpreting graphs and charts that are generated from various computerized reports and interpret them successfully to understand what the statistical data represents in the given business context (Benson, Morgan & Filippaios, 2014). Ã Programming languages are used to make Software. A computer programmer has the responsibility of making various software using coding. Various programming languages such as C, C++, Java, Python, dot net is used in order to make various applications and software. A computer support specialist provides technical support to all computer related queries and questions and solves those issues (Lloyd, 2017). These professionals might run diagnostic programs in order to detect the area of issues and solve them with his skills and expertise. All of the above mentioned job roles need in-depth knowledge and understanding of the various subjects of Information Technology (Ã krinjari?, 2014). The domain of Information Technology is not a theoretical one. It needs practical experiences and hands-on skills for working successfully in the various career options. In BC, Canada, Information Technology is in high demand. A recent report revealed that more than 182000 people are needed in various IT positions by 2019, to fulfill the demand in Canada (Ã krinjari?, 2014). This statistics provides an idea about the prospect of IT in Canada. In order to meet these demands, the business organizations have been recruiting students with IT background. Canada has been facing major IT talent shortage, since the number of people studying IT is not enough to fulfill the created demand (Wong, 2015). The government of Canada has also been taking initiatives to encourage the students of various other backgrounds to pursue short-term courses of IT, so that they might also join the pool of potential IT employees. Thus, the talent gap is to be fulfilled such that the advancements in the information technologies could be carried out successfully. Figure 2: Province-wise ICT labour demand in Canada (Source: Benson, Morgan & Filippaios, 2014) British Columbia, Canada has one of the most popular companies that need IT employees. Thus, the career prospect for the students studying Information Technology is high and diverse. Moreover, various new research domains of Information Technology such as Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI) are being developed, thus widening the career prospect of IT even more. Thus, the career outlook of Information technology is high and increasing day by day, with the increase in the technological demands all around the world.Ã Badage, R. N., & Karande, K. J. (2016). Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) In Career Planning of Rural Youth of India. Baller, S., Dutta, S., & Lanvin, B. (2016). The global information technology report 2016. InÃ World Economic Forum, GenevaÃ (pp. 1-307). Benson, V., Morgan, S., & Filippaios, F. (2014). Social career management: Social media and employability skills gap.Ã Computers in Human Behavior,Ã 30, 519-525. Lloyd, I. (2017).Ã Information technology law. Oxford University Press. Ã krinjari?, B. (2014). William G. Bowen: Higher Education in the Digital Age.Ã Croatian Economic Survey,Ã 16(1), 171-185. Wong, Z. (2015). Student Attitudes toward Information Systems Management as Major and Career Options.Ã International Journal of Information and Education Technology,Ã 5(6), 409.Ã Ã Ã
Saturday, November 2, 2019
If the research budget is limited, there is no need to conduct marketing research - Essay Example This essay discusses that as marketing research is important in the successful promotion of the products/service of an organisation, it must be given due consideration. It is inevitable for an organization to allot a separate budget for marketing research. Undoubtedly, an organisation that desires to thrive in the field can never say excuse for having not enough funds. As far as an organisation is concerned, market research is conducted not only for learning purpose but also for flawless decision making process. It is on the basis of the information gathered through research an organization decides whether or not to make changes in the existing product line. To illustrate, a well conducted research would propose multiple options for introducing new product line or entering into new markets. Apart from obtaining new customers, more importance must be given for retaining the existing customers. Long term loyalty and relationship between the organisation and the customers are not just d eveloped on a single day. They are the result of strenuous efforts made by the organisation by closely understanding the needs and preferences of the customers. Moreover, the data collected through market research can help marketers to make decision on product quality or services expansion. It may result in introducing more innovative product or redesigning the marketing strategy. Similarly, the potential problems associated with launching a new product can also be identified through marketing research. If the probable difficulties are known in advance, firms can take steps to address them on time. The research conducted after a product launch will help the firm to determine further steps. According to Malhotra & Dash (2009, p.45), Marketing research helps an organisation to know the demographics and psychographics of customers. It reveals the number of persons who buy the products, why they buy, when they buy, the frequency of their buying, and the sources of their buying; and it a lso includes the social status and the regional location of the customers (ibid). As market research bring out information regarding age, sex, population, buying behavior, and location, firms can easily determine whether to change their market segments or business destinations to more favorable ones. In the absence of such a study, taking flawless decisions is unlikely. Marketing research is one of the best ways of knowing the strategies of competitors, their identity, marketing network, scale of focus and many more. It is important for a business firm to observe how its rivals carry out business as it evaluates its own progress or loss. By imitating the competitors on an equal scale, one can retaliate on the same manner as the competitors do. These actions would help the firm not only to improve the product quality but also to obtain prospective customers for the organisation. Marketing research can sometimes be used as an evaluation tool which may help in making comparative studie s so that the organization can track its own progress over a period of time. In addition, in some occasions marketing research helps to explore what went wrong. For example, Johnson & Johnson Company probed into the poisoning of their capsules